Further down this page you will find references to the research underpinning the principles by the Principal Investigator of the study, Professor Suzanne Graham, and the Co-Investigator, Professor Ernesto Macaro.

These presentations also describe how evidence drawn from a wide breadth of research has been used to inform the eight principles. They were used at a series of workshops to introduce the eight principles to language professionals in 2012:

Opening Plenary

A useful ITE/CPD exercise comparing two different approaches to using the target language in the classroom can be downloaded here.  The activity was used in the opening plenary at the workshops.

Listening/Reading/Writing Workshop

Oral Interaction Workshop

Closing Plenary


Research References

The links will take you to a site where you can access the abstract. We are working on making the whole journal articles accessible via this link shortly.

Erler, L., & Macaro, E. (2011). Decoding ability in French as a foreign language and language learning motivation. The Modern Language Journal, 95/4. 496-518

Graham, S., Santos, D. & Vanderplank, R. (2008) Listening comprehension and strategy use: a longitudinal exploration. System, 36 (1), 52-68.

Macaro, E. (2001). Analysing student teachers’ codeswitching in foreign language classrooms: theories and decision making. The Modern Language Journal, 85/4. 531-548.

Macaro, E. (2007). Do beginner learners of French have any writing strategies? Language Learning Journal. 35/1, 23-36.

Macaro, E, and Erler, L (2008) Raising the achievement of young-beginner readers of French through strategy instruction. Applied Linguistics. 29/1, 90-119.

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